Painting was characterized by the juxtaposition of overlapping planes. The images were represented hierarchically, i.e., the Pharaoh is larger than the subjects or enemies at his side. Egyptians painted the head and limbs in profile, while the shoulders and eyes in front. Applied arts were developed significantly in Egypt, in particular woodwork and metalwork, with superb examples like cedar furniture inlaid with ebony and ivory of the tombs at the Egyptian Museum, or the pieces found in Tutankhamun’s tomb, which are of great artistic quality.
Our love of art glass and the many ways it has been used throughout history sent us to the internet. There were high hopes of discovering new and untapped resources to further enhance our appreciation and knowledge of art glass. We hoped there would be one website directory pointing us in the right direction to find art glass, glass artists, dealers, museums, etc.
??’?Art??’? is a French language play by Yasmina Reza that premiered on 28 October 1994 at Comédie des Champs Élysées in Paris. The English language adaptation, translated by Christopher Hampton, opened in London’s West End on 15 October 1996, starring Albert Finney, Tom Courtenay and Ken Stott, produced by David Pugh and Sean Connery, running for eight years.
A useful way to examine how art history is organized is through the major survey textbooks, which reflect an encyclopedic view of great art. Frequently consulted textbooks published in English are Ernst Gombrich’s Story of Art, Marilyn Stokstad’s Art History, Anthony Janson’s History of Art, David Wilkins, Bernard Schultz, and Katheryn M. Linduff’s Art Past, Art Present, Helen Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, Hugh Honour and John Flemming’s A World History of Art, and Laurie Schneider Adams’s Art Across Time. One of the best places to find information on canonical art history is the Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, sponsored by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Until the 1960s, art history and criticism rarely reflected anything other than the male point of view. The feminist art movement began to change this, but one of the first widely known statements of the political messages in nudity was made in 1972 by the art critic John Berger. In Ways of Seeing, he argued that female nudes reflected and reinforced the prevailing power relationship between females portrayed in art and the predominantly male audience. A year later Laura Mulvey wrote “Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema” stating the concept of the male gaze, which asserts that all nudes are inherently voyeuristic.
Look to most of the top selling films and CDs and note the use of violence. Our children are taught almost from birth that violence is a way of life. Check out the back in the day cartoons like ‘Tom & Jerry or Roadrunner, Coyote, Bugs Bunny & Co.’ and taste the pampered violence that spawned myriad destructive issues of today. It sho’ ain’t right, but it is ‘The Real’ that we must deal with, like it or not.
Frances Borzello says that contemporary artists are no longer interested in the ideals and traditions of the past, but confront the viewer with all the sexuality, discomfort and anxiety that the unclothed body may express, perhaps eliminating the distinction between the naked and the nude. Performance art takes the final step by presenting actual naked bodies as a work of art.
At the time of the Spanish conquest of Yucatán during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Maya were still powerful, but many communities were paying tribute to Aztec society. The latter culture was thriving, and it included arts such as sculpture, painting, and feather mosaic. Perhaps the most well known work of Aztec art is the calendar stone, which has become a national symbol of the state of Mexico. During the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire many of these artistic objects were sent to Europe, where they were placed in cabinets of curiosities, and later redistributed to art museums. The Aztec empire was based in the city of Tenochtitlan which was largely destroyed during the colonial era. What remains of it was buried beneath Mexico City. A few buildings, such as the foundation of the Templo Mayor have since been unearthed by archaeologists, but they are in poor condition.
Both the making of art, the academic history of art, and the history of art museums are closely intertwined with the rise of nationalism. Art created in the modern era, in fact, has often been an attempt to generate feelings of national superiority or love of one’s country. Russian art is an especially good example of this, as the Russian avant garde and later Soviet art were attempts to define that country’s identity.
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